 
Editor’s Note: When you have a diversity of cultures and different primary languages, levels of experience, and learning styles, you need additional options for learners and teachers to enhance the teaching  learning process. Tutoring, coupled with audiovisuals and/or interactive multimedia are possible options. This study uses videos to enhance student attitudes and improve learning in the experimental group. Enhancing Mathematical Attitude through Video Programmes Among 10^{th} Grade Standard NIOS Students – An ExperimentS. Rastogi and R. K. AryaAfrica and IndiaIntroductionThe National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS), New Delhi has opened admissions and course selection without any genuine restriction. Any person who desires to join a Secondary level programme may select any course (including Mathematics) of his /her choice. Later on, they may face problems of low achievement, particularly in Mathematics. A negative attitude or a low positive attitude towards Mathematics may be a reason for low achievement. It is essential to improve attitude towards this subject if we want a higher level of achievement. An individual, who has associated himself with positive affect or feeling with some psychological object, is said to like that object, or in other words, has a favourable attitude towards that object. Similarly, an individual who has associated negative affect or feeling with that object is said to dislike that object or in other words, he has an unfavorable attitude towards that object. Thus, attitude can be expressed as a continuum from highly positive attitude to highly negative attitude, with various shades of positive negative attitudes in between including a neutral zone which indicate neither favourable nor unfavourable attitude. Thinking In terms of a continuum, it is possible to find out the degree or extent of ‘positiveness’ or ‘negativeness’ of an attitude. Thus, the attitudes of different individual can be compared. This definition appears to be more scientific and useful for operational and measurement purposes. The investigator has adopted this definition in the present study. Traditional assumption of most research on attitudes (Newcomb et. al. 1963) is that the introduction of new information, both positive and negative, will change the attitudes of people, especially those in the process of school education. A concept of attitude change, which equally integrates belief and behaviour and includes the value of conflict as a means of institutional reform (designed to realise human values), has profound educational implications. ObjectivesFollowing objectives were framed in order to examine the effect of Video Programmes on Attitude towards Mathematics among 10th grade NIOS students.
MethodologyWhile selecting a suitable Mathematical attitude scale, the investigator had given thought to the condition of NIOS learners and their previous background in the field of Mathematics. These NIOS learners belong to a heterogeneous group, having different levels of previous academic experiences. These learners have less experience in learning Mathematics compared to traditional students having a continuous 10 year study experience. NIOS learners do not attend regular classes like their counterparts in a conventional system. They rarely meet their teacher / tutor for interaction on various issues. Under these circumstances, the investigator examined various available tests in the NCERT library but no test was found to be satisfactory because these tests were developed for traditional students. The investigator also examined a Mathematical attitude scale developed and standardized by Dr. S. Rastogi. The test had item related to attitude towards Mathematics for the beginners. This test has 24 items, having 12 positive and 12 negative items distributed over a five point scale. The learners were supposed to put a tick mark in one of the five columns of their choice. There was no time limit for completing this test and learners had full freedom to take their own time. However, it was observed that between 20 to 40 minutes, all learners completed the test. Numerical weights were assigned as below.
Sum of the weights on all the 24 statements was the learners’ total score for that form. The scores obtained in + statement and – statements were added to derive a final score by a learner. These scores became raw data for calculation in both pretest and post test. The criteria for respondent classification was as below:
The selected Attitude Scale was given twice as ‘Pretest’ (March 04) and ‘Posttest’(June 04). The Experimental Group studied some difficult concepts through Video Programmes and Tutor Support, while the Control Group had tutor support only. There were Six Videos on Profit and Loss, Area, Volume and Surface Area, Triangle, Pythagoras Theorem, and Circle. Table 1Sampling Structure for the Experiment
Limitations of this StudyThe study was limited to 10th grade NIOS learners in the Delhi Region.
Results of Inferential AnalysisThe Mathematical Attitude Scale (adopted) was administered two times to examine the significance of change in attitude in the target group. Therefore, this analysis covered only two situations as Pre Test and Post Test, for all sub groups like Rural and Urban, Male and Female, and All learners. The detailed inferential analysis is shown in the Tables given below: Table 2Sample Distribution in Various Regions

S. No.  Group  Mean  SD  Std. Error (Mean)  t value  Remark 
1.  Control  63.04  6.83  1.44  1.42  NS(.05) 
2.  Experimental  64.00  6.53  1.15 
M1M2 = 0.96 not significant
S. No.  Group  Mean  SD  Std. Error (Mean)  t value  Remark 
1.  Control  64.80  6.46  1.46  1.23  NS(.05) 
2.  Experimental  66.86  6.06  1.12 
M1M2 = 2.08 not significant
S. No.  Group  Mean  SD  Std. Error (Mean)  t value  Remark 
1.  Control  63.68  6.69  1.47  1.05  NS(.05) 
2.  Experimental  64.48  6.61  1.77 
M1M2 = 0.8 not significant
S. No.  Group  Mean  SD  Std. Error (Mean)  t value  Remark 
1.  Control  65.28  6.30  1.42  1.56  NS(.0 5) 
2.  Experimental  66.56  6.07  1.73 
M1M2 = 1.28 not significant
S. No.  Group  Mean  SD  Std. Error (Mean)  t value  Remark 
1.  Control  64.48  4.58  1.02  1.68  NS(.05) 
2.  Experimental  65.52  4.46  1.24 
M1M2 = 1.04 not significant
S. No.  Group  Mean  SD  Std. Error (Mean)  t value  Remark 
1.  Control  64.00  6.59  1.43  1.667  NS(.05) 
2.  Experimental  83.20  8.26  1.43 
M1M2 = 19.20 not significant
S. No.  Group  Mean  SD  Std. Error (Mean)  t value  Remark 
1.  Control  66.24  6.19  1.48  6.06  S(.01) 
2.  Experimental  84.32  9.18  1.23 
M1M2 = 18.08 SIGNIFICANT
S. No.  Group  Mean  SD  Std. Error (Mean)  t value  Remark 
1.  Control  64.96  6.38  1.45  11.42  S(.01) 
2.  Experimental  82.88  7.95  1.76 
M1M2 = 17.92 SIGNIFICANT
S. No.  Group  Mean  SD  Std. Error (Mean)  t value  Remark 
1.  Control  65.92  6.21  1.46  9.58  S(.01) 
2.  Experimental  84.40  8.14  1.73 
M1M2 = 18.48 SIGNIFICANT
S. No.  Group  Mean  SD  Std. Error (Mean)  t value  Remark 
1.  Control  65.44  4.45  1.03  13.03  S(.01) 
2.  Experimental  82.64  5.78  1.23 
M1M2 = 17.20 SIGNIFICANT
Test  Mean  SD  r  t value  Remark 
Pre Test  63.04  6.83  .79  .220  NS(.05) 
Post Test  64.00  6.59 
M1M2 = 0.96 not significant
Test  Mean  SD  r  t value  Remark 
Pre Test  64.00  6.53  .86  4.51  S(.01) 
Post Test  83.20  8.26 
M1M2 = 19.20 SIGNIFICANT
Test  Mean  SD  r  t value  Remark 
Pre Test  64.80  6.46  .81  .369  NS(.05) 
Post Test  66.24  6.19 
M1M2 = 1.44 not significant
Test  Mean  SD  r  t value  Remark 
Pre Test  66.88  6.06  .82  3.20  S(.01) 
Post Test  84.32  9.18 
M1M2 = 17.44 SIGNIFICANT
Test  Mean  SD  r  t value  Remark 
Pre Test  63.68  6.69  .79  .301  NS(. 0 5) 
Post Test  64.96  6.38 
M1M2 = 1.28 not significant
Test  Mean  SD  r  t value  Remark 
Pre Test  64.48  6.61  .87  4.68  S(.01) 
Post Test  82.88  7.95 
M1M2 = 18.40 SIGNIFICANT
Test  Mean  SD  r  t value  Remark 
Pre Test  65.28  6.30  .76  .147  NS(.05) 
Post Test  65.92  6.21 
M1M2 = .64 not significant
Test  Mean  SD  r  t value  Remark 
Pre Test  66.56  6.07  .86  3.72  S(.01) 
Post Test  82.40  8.14 
M1M2 = 15.84 SIGNIFICANT
Test  Mean  SD  r  t value  Remark 
Pre Test  64.48  4.58  .77  .30  NS(.05) 
Post Test  65.44  4.45 
M1M2 = .96 not significant
Test  Mean  SD  r  t value  Remark 
Pre Test  65.52  4.46  0.89  6.29  S(.01) 
Post Test  82.64  5.78 
M1M2 = 17.12 SIGNIFICANT
It was found from inferential analysis of Pre Test results for the Attitude Test, that Rural and Urban, Male and Female, as well as ALL learners were almost similar for Control Groups and Experimental Groups. This indicated that Control Group and Experimental Group, everywhere for attitude scale were similar. This was verified from Tables 3 to 7. After experimentation, it was observed that in rural areas, the Experimental Group and Control Group had no significant difference. But, in Urban Areas, this difference was significant in favour of Experimental Group. Similarly, Male and Female groups had significant differences in favour of Experimental Group. Similar results were obtained for whole group also. It can be seen from tables 8 to 12. In the case of Attitude change towards Mathematics, the results indicated that Control Group (for Rural, Urban, Male, Female and All learners) had no significant difference (Tables 13, 15, 17, 19, 21). On the other hand, all sub groups of the Experimental Group had a significant change in their Attitude towards Mathematics (Tables 14, 16, 18, 20, 22). The video programme and tutor support combination was effective in changing the Attitude of Experimental Group learners. Tutor support had no effect upon the learners of Control Group. Thus, it was found that Video Programmes along with tutor support have a potential for changing Mathematical attitude among Tenth Grade NIOS learners so it was recommended for use among the target group. There was no need to recommend any other strategy based on the findings of this study this study.
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S. Rastogi ,Professor, College of Education.; Eritrea Institute of Technology, Mai Nefhi, Eritrea (Africa) : satishrastogi11@gmail.com
R. K. Arya, Jt. Director (Media) National Institute of Open Schooling, Noida, India : aryark52@hotmail.com