Editor’s Note: As learning improves, it is also necessary to update the infrastructure to support teaching, learning, and business operations of the University. Intuitively we know that business operations are more accurate and less expensive using computers, but is this the right time to implement the computerized business plan? This research validates the change and discovers the driving forces behind the transition.
Usage of Self-Service Technologies (SSTs):
Level of Intention
5.00 - 10.99
11.00 – 15.99
16.00 – 20.00
Most of the postgraduate students that represent 189 questionnaires (63.22%) have moderate intention to use SSTs. Thus, one could assume that the level of intention in using SSTs among majority of postgraduate students in the UiTM, are at the moderate level. This could be due to the proportion of gender among postgraduate students that is slightly different from each other. The proportion of female (204) students is higher than male (95). This can be evident from the information tabulated in the Table 2.
The mean scores for female students are 15.67 and male students are equal to 16.02. On top of that, this result is consistent with the works of Young (2000) and Nilsson (2007). Where, the authors revealed that males are more likely to use SSTs because they have a positive attitude toward the SSTs, high levels of confidence, greater computer skills and less anxiety compared to females.
In answering the second research objective, a T-test, One-way ANOVA and regression analysis are performed independently. The objective of these tests is to examine which independent variables (IV) are affecting students’ intention in using SSTs, in particular ATMs and internet banking, that is offered by the Bursary of UiTM. Independent T-tests are performed in examining whether gender, education level and mode of study, may in some ways, have significant effect on students’ intention to use SSTs. In addition, the One-way ANOVA was conducted to investigate the age categories. The rest of independent variables (IV) such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, need for interaction, and security and privacy are examined by a regression analysis.
As shown in Table 3, the result of T-test found that gender has no significant effect on the students’ intention to use the SSTs (p = .234, p > .05).
T-test for Equality of Means
Equal Variances assumed
This result is consistent with previous studies that reported gender did not play an important role in adoption of technology (Gefen & Starub, 1997; Maldifassi & Canessa, 2009). Another probable reason might be because students in UiTM, regardless of whether they are female or male, are more technology literate due to extensive efforts by UiTM to provide more facilities related to information, technology and communication. These sophisticated technologies gradually enhance student skills, experiences and perceptions of technology.
Table 4 showed that educational level (Masters or Ph.D.) is not significant in measuring the students’ intention to use the SSTs. This is evident in the p-value = 0.107 (p > 0.05). The possible explanations could be because both groups are categorized as possessing similar levels of education and SSTs such as ATMs and online banking are easy to use. Thus, differences in level of education are unimportant in determining their intention to use the SSTs.
T-test for Equality of Means
Equal Variances assumed
As shown in Table 5, p-value is equal to 0.459 (p > 0.05) and it signifies that mode of study is not a significant factor in students’ intention to use SSTs. One plausible explanation is that both groups (full-time and part-time) intend to use ATMs and online banking rather than cash in BIMB’s counter service to settle financial matters related to the Bursary. SSTs are very useful to students due to benefits offered. Hence, the difference in mode of study is not important.
T-test for Equality of Means
Equal Variances assumed
Age is categorized into four categories (a) 20-29, (b) 30-39, (c) 40-49, and (d) above 50 years old. However, Czaja et al. (2006) categorized age into three main categories (a) 18-39, younger adult; (b) 40-49, as the middle adult; and (c) 60-91, older adult. Table 6 demonstrates that the p-value is 0.316 (p > 0.05). Thus, the result reveals that age is insignificant and not an integral factor that affecting students’ intention to use SSTs. The probable reasons are that most of the postgraduate students have intentions to use ATMs and internet banking in paying their fees and other financial matters is due to easy access and reduced processing time. In addition, facilities such as wireless internet and ATMs’ kiosk across the state campuses and Shah Alam also contributed to students’ intention to use SSTs. The result is consistent with the study done by Anandarajan, Simmers and Igbaria (2000) that age does not have any significant associations with the internet usage among postgraduate students at the university in the North-Eastern United States.
Sum of Squares
As shown in Table 7, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived enjoyment, and security and privacy are significant due to p-values smaller than 0.05 and become the factors that affecting students’ intention to use the SSTs. One plausible reason is that most postgraduate students tend to use ATMs and internet banking if these SSTs enhance their job performance, are user-friendly, are less effort to use, and they feel joy and pleasure while using it. Also, there is minimal risk of third parties gaining access to their personal data without their permission. This is aligned with other previous studies (Wang et al., 2003; Pikkarainen et al., 2004; Curran & Meuter, 2005; Eriksson et al., 2005; Guriting & Ndubisi, 2006; Rigopolous, 2007; Amin, 2007) and contradicts the study by Ndubisi and Jantan (2003) that revealed the perceived ease of use did not have any significance in internet banking. In contrast, need for interaction is not significant as evidenced by the p-value equal to .994 (p > .05). The probable explanation is that the need for interaction with bank employees at the BIMB’s counter service is unimportant and it is considered as conducting cash payment method and involves a lot of time. This finding is consistent with the result of Curran and Meuter (2005), where they found that need for interaction has no significant effect on ATMs and online banking.
Perceived ease of use
Need for interaction
Security and privacy
A stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted in order to achieve the third research objective. Under this regression, only the significant results are shown, while insignificant variables are excluded. As shown in Table 8, four independent variables: perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness, security and privacy, and perceived ease of use are the predictors that significantly predict the students’ intentions toward the use of SSTs, F(4,289) = 71.752, p = .000.
Sum of Squares
Predictors: Perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness, security and privacy,
perceived ease of use
Meanwhile, in determining the best variable to predict students’ intentions to use SSTs, the columns of R square change and significant F change in Table 9 are noted. From the column of R square change, the highest percentage is considered as the best predictor. In addition, the column Sig. F change determines whether the variables are significant (p < 0.05).The results disclose that the behavioral intention to use SSTs is supported by perceived enjoyment at 34.5%, followed by perceived usefulness at 10.9%, security and privacy at 3.6% and perceived ease of use that less than 1%. Thus, it indicates that the perceived enjoyment is the best predictor to predict students’ intentions toward the use of SSTs. This might be due to the majority of the postgraduate students being in the age range between 20 and 39 years old. As the younger users, they are more exposed and enjoy using computer and internet. Thus, it can be easier for them to create a positive attitude on the system usage and eventually encourage them to adopt SSTs. The result is in line with the study of Heijden (2004) and Zhang (2004) that perceived enjoyment as a stronger predictor of behavioral intention than perceived usefulness.
R square Change
Sig. F Change
Predictors: (Constant), Perceived enjoyment
Predictors: (Constant), Perceived enjoyment, Perceived usefulness
Predictors: (Constant), Perceived enjoyment, Perceived usefulness, Security and Privacy
Predictors: (Constant), Perceived enjoyment, Perceived usefulness, Security and Privacy, Perceived ease of use
Overall, it can be concluded that postgraduate students are at the moderate level of intention in using SSTs. Most of postgraduate students are willing to use SSTs particularly ATMs and online banking because these technologies facilitate them in settling tuition fees and other financial matters. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment become the factors to predict students’ intention in using SSTs and perceived enjoyment or the feel of pleasure and joy emerged from using ATMs and internet banking becomes the best predictor to predict students’ intention in using SSTs. From this result, we can see that the Bursary has to play an important role in encouraging students to use ATMs and internet banking in order to increase the highest level of students’ intention to use SSTs. One of the best solutions is by upgrading the e-debit system to become more user-friendly. This will encourage the non-adopters to use ATMs and internet banking rather than cash payment method, which need a lot of time queuing in bank. Additionally, campaigns on the advantages of using ATMs and internet banking should be carried out more frequently from one faculty to faculty or through the UiTM’s web site. Furthermore, during orientation week, a session on e-debit system can be organized to provide an overview about this system and its advantages. Most importantly, the clarification on the usage of ATMs and internet banking as an effective and convenient channel for settling fees and any financial matters should be taken as a priority. It hoped that with this extensive efforts and campaigns, students would prefer to use ATMs and online banking. Due to several advantages embedded in these technologies such as convenience, speed its transaction process and easy to use, students would not have to spend hours in the Bank and Bursary’s counter. Consequently, the Bursary’s aims to lessen human interaction will be achieved.
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Fauziah Esman is in the Commerce Department, Polytechnic Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah, Kuantan, Malaysia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Roslani Embi is in the Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia. Email: email@example.com
Rohayati Jusoh is in the Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Terengganu, Malaysia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org